Scipio gave battle to and destroyed two large Carthaginian armies. Without the expected reinforcement the Carthaginians were compelled to evacuate allied towns in Italy and withdraw to Bruttium.  More formal battles were usually preceded by the two armies camping one to seven miles (2â12 km) apart for days or weeks; sometimes forming up in battle order each day. In 211 BC, Rome contained the threat of Macedonia by allying with the Aetolian League, an anti-Macedonian coalition of Greek city states.  Hamilcar ruled as a viceroy and was succeeded by his son-in-law, Hasdrubal, in the early 220s BC and then his son, Hannibal, in 221 BC. The Second Punic War. Thus, the two armies remained deadlocked on the Italian peninsula until 211 bce, when Rome recaptured the city of Capua. 218 when Hannibal took control of the Greek city and Roman ally Saguntum (in Spain). Hannibal negotiated a treaty whereby Syracuse came over to Carthage, at the price of making the whole of Sicily a Syracusan possession. hannibal barca. The First Punic War (264 to 241 BC) there was no punic war there was a first,second or third. The term Punic is derived from Punicus, which is the Latin term for the Carthaginians.  Hannibal then cut off the Roman army from Rome, which provoked Flaminius into a hasty pursuit without proper reconnaissance. For 17 years the two states struggled for supremacy, primarily in Italy and Iberia, but also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia and, towards the end of the war, in North Africa. , Carthage sent more reinforcements to Sicily in 211 BC and went on the offensive. Rather than attack Rome directly, he marched on Capua, the second largest town in Italy, hoping to incite the populace to rebel. Macedonia, Syracuse and several Numidian kingdoms were drawn into the fighting; and Iberian and Gallic forces fought on both sides.  According to the classicist Richard Miles, Rome's expansionary attitude after southern Italy came under its control combined with Carthage's proprietary approach to Sicily caused the two powers to stumble into war more by accident than design.  Hannibal hoped some of these allies could be persuaded to defect. The Romans were still in their winter quarters.  Forming up in battle order was a complicated and premeditated affair, which took several hours. The peace treaty imposed on the Carthaginians stripped them of all of their overseas territories, and some of their African ones.  Carthage's new allies felt little sense of community with Carthage, or even with each other. He withdrew northward to rendezvous with Gnaeus Scipio's army, just as a third Carthaginian for… The heavily outnumbered Carthaginian infantry held out while this was happening until Hasdrubal charged into the legions from behind. In most circumstances Carthage recruited foreigners to make up its army. He released the captured population and liberated the Iberian hostages held there by the Carthaginians, in an attempt to ensure the loyalty of their tribes; although many of them were subsequently to fight against the Romans. The Romans took drastic steps to raise new legions: enrolling slaves, criminals and those who did not meet the usual property qualification and so vastly increasing the number of men they had under arms. Gaius Nero, commander of the southern Roman army, slipped away north also and defeated Hasdrubal on the banks of the Metauros River. The treaty between them and Hannibal can be described as an agreement of friendship, since the Capuans had no obligations.  Rome exploited Carthage's distraction during the Truceless War against rebellious mercenaries and Libyan subjects to break the peace treaty and annex Carthaginian Sardinia and Corsica in 238 BC. Because Rome controlled the sea, Hannibal led his army overland through Spain and Gaul and across the Alps, arriving in the plain of the Po River valley in 218 bce with 20,000 infantry and 6,000 cavalry. These wars took place between 264 and 146 BC. The majority were deployed in southern Italy in field armies of approximately 20,000 men each.  However, the classicist Adrian Goldsworthy considers Livy's "reliability is often suspect"; the historian Phillip Sabin refers to Livy's "military ignorance"; and he is generally considered untrustworthy by modern historians. …  Hannibal then fought the inconclusive Battle of Numistro, but the Romans stayed on his heels, fighting the also inconclusive Battle of Canusium in 209 BC.  This gave Carthage the silver mines, agricultural wealth, manpower, military facilities such as shipyards and territorial depth to stand up to future Roman demands with confidence. At the Battle of Ilipa in 206 Scipio permanently ended the Carthaginian presence in Iberia. Between 215 and 210 BC the Carthaginians attempted to capture Roman-held Sicily and Sardinia, but were unsuccessful. Archimedes before being killed by the Roman soldier â copy of a Roman mosaic from the 2nd century, An Iberian warrior from bas-relief c. 200 BC. 23 years.  During this period of Roman expansion, Carthage, with its capital in what is now Tunisia, had come to dominate southern Spain, much of the coastal regions of North Africa, the Balearic Islands, Corsica, Sardinia, and the western half of Sicily. In response, Roman advisers were sent to train his soldiers and he waged war against the Carthaginian ally Gala. , In 213 BC Syphax, a powerful Numidian king in North Africa, declared for Rome. Two of the major Samnite tribes also joined the Carthaginian cause.  The Carthaginians were defeated, but Hasdrubal was able to withdraw the majority of his army in good order; most of his losses were among his Iberian allies. This was a long war, beginning in 264 BC and not ending until 241 BC.  Despite these losses, the Romans besieged Capua, the Carthaginians' key ally in Italy. It soon received Gallic and Ligurian reinforcements. His subordinate Hanno was able to raise troops in Samnium in 214 BC, but the Romans intercepted these new levies in the Battle of Beneventum and eliminated them before they rendezvoused with Hannibal. Quintus Fabius Maximus was elected dictator by the Roman Assembly and adopted the "Fabian strategy" of avoiding pitched battles, relying instead on low-level harassment to wear the invader down, until Rome could rebuild its military strength. Second Punic War (218-201 BC) In 219 BC, Hannibal laid siege to Saguntum, a coastal city in northeast Hispania that enjoyed a long-standing treaty of friendship with Rome.In 226 BC, however, Hasdrubal the Fair signed a treaty with Rome that acknowledged Carthage's control of Hispania south of the Ebro River. Hasdrubal demurred, arguing that Carthaginian authority over the Iberian tribes was too fragile and the Roman forces in the area too strong for him to execute the planned movement. In the years after the First Punic War, Rome wrested Corsica and Sardinia from Carthage and forced Carthaginians  At some time during the next six years Rome made a separate agreement with the city of Saguntum, which was situated well south of the Ebro. , After Publius Cornelius Scipio invaded the Carthaginian homeland in 204 BC, defeating the Carthaginians in two major battles and winning the allegiance of the Numidian kingdoms of North Africa, Hannibal and the remnants of his army were recalled. Livy gives a fuller record, but according to Goldsworthy "his reliability is often suspect", especially with regard to his descriptions of battles; many modern historians agree, but nevertheless his is the best surviving source for this part of the war. In 216 B.C., the Roman Republic was embroiled in the second of what would eventually be three devastating wars with the North African city-state of Carthage. The warrior is armed with a, 2nd century BC marble bust, identified as the younger Scipio, now in the.  They sailed from Croton and landed at Carthage with 15,000â20,000 experienced veterans.  When armies were campaigning, surprise attacks, ambushes and stratagems were common. What were the wars fought in Rome and Carthage? Both battles ended in complete defeat for the Romans, as Hasdrubal had bribed the Romans' mercenaries to desert. The approximate extent of territory controlled by Rome and Carthage immediately before the start of the First Punic War. Carthage and Rome had fought the 23-year-long First Punic War from 264 to 241 BC and the 17-year-long Second Punic War between 218 and 201 BC. The Roman legions forced their way through Hannibal's deliberately weak centre, but Libyan heavy infantry on the wings swung around their advance, menacing their flanks. His aim was to join his forces with those of Hannibal, but Hannibal was unaware of his presence. The remaining Carthaginian-controlled towns then surrendered or were taken through force or treachery and the Sicilian grain supply to Rome and its armies was resumed. The Second Punic War 218 -202 BC. https://www.britannica.com/event/Second-Punic-War, Military History Encyclopedia on the Web - Second Punic War. The Roman Senate authorized the raising of double-sized armies by Varro and Paullus, a force of 86,000 men, the largest in Roman history up to that point. The Second Punic War Ends (202-201 BC) In 202 BC, after the Battle of Zama, Hannibal met Scipio in a … , The Roman Republic had been aggressively expanding in the southern Italian mainland for a century and had conquered peninsular Italy south of the Arno River by 272 BC, when the Greek cities of southern Italy (Magna Graecia) submitted after the conclusion of the Pyrrhic War. Updates? The Second Punic War (218â201 BC) was the second of three wars fought between Carthage and Rome, the two main powers of the western Mediterranean in the 3rd century BC.  In 212 BC Hannibal destroyed the Roman army of M. Centenius Penula at the Battle of the Silarus in northwest Lucania.  All except the smallest towns were too well fortified for Hannibal to take by assault, and blockade could be a long-drawn-out affair, or if the target was a port, impossible. 3rd Punic War 149 to 146 BCE. In 218 BC there was some naval skirmishing in the waters around Sicily. And they were on separate land masses, which made it harder to be decisive. These commanders were Sempronius, at the Trebbia … It entered Gaul and took an inland route, to avoid the Roman allies to the south. He won several battles but still refrained from attacking the city of Rome, even after annihilating a huge Roman army at Cannae in 216. In the Second Punic War, various Roman commanders faced Hannibal, leader of the forces of Carthaginians, their allies, and mercenaries.Four major Roman commanders made a name for themselves in the following main battles of the second Punic War. Timeline Of The Punic Wars. The Carthaginians encircled the Romans and only 10,000 out of 42,000 were able to fight their way to safety. In 207 BC, after recruiting heavily in Gaul, Hasdrubal crossed the Alps into Italy in an attempt to join his brother, Hannibal.  After landing in Africa in 204 BC, he was joined by Masinissa and a force of Numidian cavalry. Carthage was forbidden to possess war elephants and its fleet was restricted to 10 warships. It was prohibited from waging war outside Africa, and in Africa only with Rome's express permission. Second Punic War, also called Second Carthaginian War, second (218–201 bce) in a series of wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean. After the death or capture of more than 120,000 Roman troops in less than three years, many of Rome's Italian allies, notably Capua, defected to Carthage, giving Hannibal control over much of southern Italy. Eventually, however, under the leadership of Hamilcar Barca, his son Hannibal, and his son-in-law Hasdrubal, Carthage acquired a new base in Spain, whence they could renew the war against Rome. But this calmed once Sempronius arrived, to preside over the consular elections in the usual manner. The Carthaginian formation collapsed; Hannibal was one of the few to escape the field. How long did the Second Punic War last? , Other, later, ancient histories of the war exist, although often in fragmentary or summary form. Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription.  Both Iberia and Gaul provided large numbers of experienced infantry – unarmoured troops who would charge ferociously, but had a reputation for breaking off if a combat was protracted – and unarmoured close order cavalry referred to by Livy as "steady", meaning that they were accustomed to sustained hand-to-hand combat rather than hit and run tactics. This meant the loss of Carthaginian Sicily to Rome under the terms of the Roman-dictated Treaty of Lutatius. The Romans beat off a Carthaginian attack and captured the island of Malta. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.  In 203 BC Carthage succeeded in recruiting at least 4,000 mercenaries from Iberia, despite Rome's nominal control.  Hannibal set an ambush and in the Battle of Lake Trasimene completely defeated the Roman army, killing 15,000 Romans, including Flaminius, and taking 10,000 prisoner. However, in the war, they lost several army men and elephants. who was the commander of carthrage in the second punic war? , The greatest gain was the second largest city of Italy, Capua, when Hannibal's army marched into Campania in 216 BC. In 211 BC Hannibal attempted to lure the Romans into a pitched battle, but was unsuccessful; and was also unable to lift the siege by assaulting the besiegers' defences. A brilliant defensive strategy conducted by Quintus Fabius Maximus Cunctator harried the Carthaginians without offering battle. He walked with a huge army including elephants and marched over the Italian Alps from Spain. The first and second Punic wars (264–241 bce and 218–201 bce) had effectively deprived Carthage of its political power.  The combined Roman force under the command of Sempronius was lured into combat by Hannibal on ground of his choosing at the Battle of the Trebia. , Sicily remained firmly in Roman hands, blocking the ready seaborne reinforcement and resupply of Hannibal from Carthage. This battle confirmed Roman dominance in Italy. The Second Punic War (aka The Hannibalic War) was fought between Carthage and Rome between 218 and 201 BCE. Now Rome had a problem, for the first time in its history, soldiers had been away to war for a long …  Many battles were decided when one side's infantry force was attacked in the flank or rear and they were partially or wholly enveloped.  Hannibal attempted to use 80 elephants to break into the Roman infantry formation, but the Romans countered them effectively and they routed back through the Carthaginian ranks.  The Carthaginians reached the foot of the Alps by late autumn and crossed them, surmounting the difficulties of climate, terrain and the guerrilla tactics of the native tribes.  The immediate cause of the war was the issue of control of the independent Sicilian city state of Messana (modern Messina). Date: Between 218 B.C., and 201 B.C. Both wars ended with Roman victories; the Second when the Roman general Scipio Africanus defeated Hannibal , the premier Carthaginian general of the war, at the Battle of Zama , 160 … In 207 Hasdrubal, following Hannibal’s route across the Alps, reached northern Italy with another large army supported by legions of Ligurians and Gauls.  When they did they fought as well-armoured heavy infantry armed with long thrusting spears, although they were notoriously ill-trained and ill-disciplined. In 208 BC Scipio defeated Hasdrubal, although Hasdrubal was able to withdraw most of his troops into Gaul and then northern Italy in spring 207 BC. An army was usually formed by combining a Roman legion with a similarly sized and equipped legion provided by their Latin allies; these legions usually had a larger attached complement of cavalry than Roman ones. The two sides' infantry fought inconclusively until the Roman cavalry returned and attacked the Carthaginian rear. , A rebellion in support of the Carthaginians broke out on Sardinia in 213 BC, but it was quickly put down by the Romans. Aided by internal upheaval in Syracuse, Carthage reestablished its presence on the island in 215 and maintained it until 210. Hannibal ravaged Italy with impunity for 14 years, defeating every Roman army sent out to meet him. An indemnity of 10,000 silver talents[note 7] was to be paid over 50 years. General Hannibal Barca fought in these wars. First Punic War 264 to 241 BCE Second Punic War 214 to 201 BCE. From the founding of the Republic, the powerful Carthaginians had long supported Rome in its bid to secure its own independence and strength in Italy.  Hannibal attempted without success to draw the main Roman army under Gaius Flaminius into a pitched battle by devastating the area they had been sent to protect. As Syracuse and Macedonia joined the Carthaginian side after Cannae, the conflict spread. , In 218 BC there was some naval skirmishing in the waters around Sicily. The Carthaginians accepted Scipio’s terms for peace: Carthage was forced to pay an indemnity and surrender its navy, and Spain and the Mediterranean islands were ceded to Rome.  Hannibal marched through the richest and most fertile provinces of Italy, hoping the devastation would draw Fabius into battle, but Fabius refused. Second Punic War, second (218–201 bce) in a series of wars between the Roman Republic and the Carthaginian (Punic) empire that resulted in Roman hegemony over the western Mediterranean.  By 207 BC Hannibal had been confined to the extreme south of Italy and many of the cities and territories which had joined the Carthaginian cause had returned to their Roman allegiance. Also the invention of the corvus, a long battle bridge used to board enemy ships.  It was a century before the site of Carthage was rebuilt as a Roman city. The Second Punic War is known as Hannibal’s War or against Hannibal. , Hasdrubal received orders from Carthage to move into Italy and join up with Hannibal in order to put pressure on the Romans in their homeland. One of those disinherited was the Numidian prince Masinissa, who was thus driven into the arms of Rome. For the next decade the war in southern Italy continued, with Roman armies slowly recapturing most of the Italian cities that had joined Carthage.  Slingers were frequently recruited from the Balearic Islands. , During 216 BC the Macedonian king, Philip V, pledged his support to Hannibal â thus initiating the First Macedonian War against Rome in 215 BC.  Such Italian forces as were raised resisted operating away from their home cities and performed badly when they did. , In the spring of 207 BC, Hasdrubal Barca marched across the Alps and invaded Italy with an army of 30,000 men. , For 11 years after Cannae the war surged around southern Italy as cities went over to the Carthaginians or were taken by subterfuge, and the Romans recaptured them by siege or by suborning pro-Roman factions.  On occasion some of the infantry would wear captured Roman armour, especially among Hannibal's troops. It seemed as though the superiority of the Romans at sea would enable them to choose the field of battle....…, During the decades between the wars, the Carthaginians had been busy building up an empire in Spain which...…. , The war lasted 23 years, ending in 241 BC with a Carthaginian defeat. At that time these were considered to be the largest wars ever fought. The Second Punic War began when the Carthaginian general Hannibal invaded Italy in 218 BCE. After seventeen years of warfare, and at a great loss of life on both sides, Rome defeated Cárthage and came out on top as the new superpower … After immense material and human losses on both sides the Carthaginians were defeated. Approximately 1,200 of the infantry, poorer or younger men unable to afford the armour and equipment of a standard legionary, served as javelin-armed skirmishers, known as velites. Traditionally, when at war the Romans would raise two legions, each of 4,200 infantry[note 3] and 300 cavalry. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. [note 2] Other sources include coins, inscriptions, archaeological evidence and empirical evidence from reconstructions. Carthage was prohibited from waging war outside Africa, and in Africa only with Rome's express permission. Having secured his position in northern Italy by this victory, Hannibal quartered his troops for the winter among the Gauls. The campaign ended in disaster at the Battle of Oroscopa and anti-Carthaginian factions in Rome used the illicit military action as a pretext to prepare a punitive expedition. By 214 BC, Mago and Hasdrubal had levied new forces and decided to strike first. In 209 BC the new Roman commander Publius Scipio captured Carthago Nova, the main Carthaginian base in the peninsula.  A rushed Carthaginian attack in late 218 BC was beaten off at the Battle of Cissa. 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