what caused the yellow river flood in 1887

Many of the people tried to run or walk upstream in order to reach a level above that of the flooded area, but they were caught in the fast-moving huge volume of water and drowned. People from the city attempted to reach as many victims as they could by rowing around in small boats. The government also redirected water from the Yellow River into Ulansuhai Lake for the first time to try to alleviate flooding. Required fields are marked *. Heavy snowstorms in the winter were followed by spring thaw/defrost with heavy rains that raised the river levels even higher. For centuries, the farmers living near the Yellow River had built dikes to contain the rising waters, caused by silt accumulation on the riverbed. From time to time, however, sudden heavy rainfall can make the river overtop these dykes and flood the neighboring farms. In ancient times, dykes would often be deliberately broken in order to flood the fields of an attacking enemy but no one was prepared for the use of that same technique in the twentieth century. Another Yellow River flood in September of 1887 inundated an estimated 130,000 km 2 (50,000 square miles, an area approximately the size of … Here and there an old tall tree was standing and people of all ages were seen clinging to branches in the hope that help would arrive. On average two occur per year. Farm work in this part of China is a year round activity. The process by which a catastrophic flood occurs is tied to both the amount of silt and the height of the dykes. For centuries, the farmers living near the Yellow River had built dikes to contain the rivers, which over time flowed higher because, not allowed to flood, they had to deposit their silt on the riverbed. On the twenty-eighth of that month, a major collapse of dykes took place unexpectedly and water began to spill all over the land on both sides. [4], deadliest natural disasters ever recorded, https://listverse.com/2007/09/07/top-10-deadliest-natural-disasters/, Encyclopedia of Disasters: Environmental Catastrophes and Human Tragedies, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1887_Yellow_River_flood&oldid=992659034, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 12:44. The 1887 Qing dynasty flood killed around 900,000 to 2 million people, while the 1931 Republic of China flood … Five thousand square miles were inundated. Disastrous flood events happened essentially annually during the rainy periodfrom 623 and 741 A.D. Floods threatened Kyoto and destroyed the Barada bank in 750 A.D. The highest estimated death toll is however 2,000,000. The rain increased into July and August of 1931. Some of the peasants were able to reach terraces that were slightly higher than the water level and there they waited for someone to reach them. YELLOW RIVER FLOOD 1887 This river is prone to flooding due to the elevated nature of the river, running between dykes above the broad plains surrounding it. As it dried out, the whole region looked like the Sahara Desert rather than the green fertile plain that was there a few days before. The 1887 Yellow River flood was a devastating flood on the Yellow River in China.This river is prone to flooding due to the elevated nature of the river, running between dykes above the broad plains surrounding it. “River of Sorrow” is another name that has been given to the Hwanghe and it is easy to understand why. In 1887, this rising river, swollen by days of heavy rain, overcame the dikes on around 28 September, causing a massive flood. Deaths: Estimated between 900,000 and 2 million; Cost: Unknown; Known as “China’s Sorrow,” the Huang, or Yellow, River is responsible for more deaths than any other river on Earth. In June of that year, a large part of the Japanese army was about to march westward across the North China Plain, a few miles south of the Yellow River, in order to capture a major railway juncture. What was the Yellow River Flood death toll: 900,000 died in the first onrush and another estimated 1.3 million drowned. When the river overtopped its banks the damage caused was enormous because of the advantage of height. The flood began in September,1887… As a precaution against flooding, people had to watch the weather and the level of water in the river. In 1887, this rising river, swollen by days of heavy rain, overcame the dikes on around 28 September, causing a massive flood. September of 1887 was a particularly wet time in northern China and along the Yellow River valley. Huang He floods, (1887, 1931) series of devastating floods in China caused by the overflowing of the Huang He (Yellow River), the country’s second longest river. In July alone 7 cyclones hit the region. In 1887, after a streak of heavy rains and the rising riverbed, the river burst its seams and overcame the dykes, flooding the lowlands and spreading throughout 50,000 square miles. Immediately after the break in the dykes the alarm was sounded and a large number of people rushed quickly to the river in the hope of repairing the breaches. From the top of the dyke the river may be forty feet below, so it is easy to imagine the amount of work that had to be done to build up the dyke to prevent any further breaches. This they did and it certainly stopped the Japanese advance, but there were terrible unexpected consequences from its action. the farmers living near the Yellow River had built dikes to contain the rising waters, caused by silt accumulation on the riverbed. One report described the situation as thousands of people all around, stunned and hungry, crying out for food. The plain remained flooded until the end of World War II and the surrender of Japan, seven years later. The dykes on both sides of the river were originally built to prevent river overflows that would destroy the farmlands, the only source of livelihood for the peasants who own and work the farms. Where was the Yellow River Flood: Huayenkou, near Zhengzhou, Henan Province, China. The 1887 Yellow River flood was a devastating flood on the Yellow River (Huang He) in China. The flood, which began in September 1887, killed at least 900,000 people. The Yellow river is prone to flooding due to its elevated nature. This river is prone to flooding due to the elevated nature of the river, running between dikes above the broad plains surrounding it. This kind of light silt can easily be dislodged from the side of the river and carried along by the stream. In early 1938, the Japanese army launched assaults from the Jin-Pu railway’s northern end at Tianjin and from its southern terminus near … Others desperately tried to stay alive by clinging to straw barrows. When the water finally stopped residents saw a plain on which there lay a heap of loess mud about eight feet deep. The Japanese then set their sights on Wuhan, where the Nationalist regime had relocated. This is going to get pretty interesting. Some homes were still erect though under water and survivors stood on these as long as they could before either hunger or cold took over and they lost their lives. The waters of the Yellow River are generally thought to have broken through the dikes in Huayuankou, near the city of Zhengzhou in Henan province. That flood covered 50,000 square miles. [1] It was one of the deadliest natural disasters ever recorded. Foreign missionary societies shared their meager food supplies with survivors but their food supplies did little for the starving thousands. As Tang armies approached the Liang capital, a general named Tuan Ning decided to breach the Yellow River dikes and flood 1,000 square miles of the Liang Kingdom in a desperate effort to stave off the Tang. The overall temperature is quite low by the end of September and on the day of the tragedy there was a strong wind that made everyone feel colder than it was. The Yellow River Flood of 1887 started on September 28th, and was the worlds second deadliest flood in history. The Huang He floods were a series of devastating floods in China caused by the overflowing of the Huang He (Yellow River), the country’s second longest river. While there have been many other floods by the yellow river the causes have been varying from the military tearing down the dikes as a military manoeuvre, to … Furthermore, the danger of a new flood would increase once the warmer weather of the following year came around. Towards the end of the month, days of heavy rains caused the river to rapidly swell. Eleven large towns and hundreds of villages were destroyed. The 772 AD Yodo river flood caused the Barada bank to break again. Great Flood of the Huang-Ho River The 1887 flood of the Huang-Ho (Yellow River), which flows more than 4,885 kilometers through China, was responsible for some of the most severe flooding in Chinese history. Close behind is the 1887 flood, which killed anywhere from 900,000 to 2 million people, and a 1931 flood (part of a massive number of floods that year) that killed 1–4 million people. Efforts by individuals and government agencies continued unabated all through the winter months. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. These three floods collectively killed millions and are considered to be the three deadliest floods in history and among the most destructive natural disasters ever recorded. As soon as the water level became too high, an army of people was supposed to rush to the scene and raise the level of the dykes. From time to time, however, sudden heavy rainfall can make the river overtop these dykes and flood the neighboring farms. The same people also wonder why peasants live and work very close to volcanoes. Before they could reach the river, the breaks had expanded to more than 2,000 feet in length. From 1928 to 1930 a long drought preceded the flood. The government planned to channel water away from populated regions near the breeched embankment into an old river bed, said the Ministry of Water Resources on March 24. The 1938 Yellow River flood (traditional Chinese: 花園口決隄事件; simplified Chinese: 花园口决堤事件; pinyin: huāyuán kǒu juédī shìjiàn, literally "Huayuankou embankment breach incident") was a flood created by the Nationalist Government in central China during the early stage of the Second Sino-Japanese War in an attempt to halt the rapid advance of Japanese forces. That is what happened in 1887 when the worst flood in Chinese history occurred. When was the Yellow River Flood: September 28 1887. The flood that began in September 1887 … It inundated eleven large towns and hundreds of villages. Thousands of feet of damaged dyke were subject to constant crumbling and when wet the silt facing was slippery. It was not always possible to identify the right moment to do this or to get people in place in time to do this corrective work. The breaches in the dykes took place near the city of Zhengzhou and, within an hour, a lake as big as Lake Ontario had formed on the adjacent plain. By some accounts abnormal weather over central China began in the winter months of late 1930. So, buckle up! The deadliest was a 1332–33 flood that killed 7 million people. The kinetic energy in the water leaving the river enabled it to wash away large segments of the dykes. Owing Thus, in the thousands of years over which farming was carried on beside the river, the overall picture was of a river flowing along at a high level above the adjacent land. The cleanup of the farm fields and the rebuilding of the dykes had to be undertaken immediately despite the approaching cold weather of winter. The answer in both instances is the same: it is near volcanoes that the best soils for farming are found. The Yellow River overtopped its dikes in Henan Province in the lower reaches of the river. Owing to the low-lying plains near the area, the flood spread very quickly throughout Northern China, covering an estimated 50,000 square miles (130,000 km2), swamping agricultural settlements and commercial centers. China Flood (1931) China floods or Yellow River floods is considered as one of the worst floods in … People unfamiliar with life around the Yellow River often wonder why peasants insist on living and working in such dangerous areas. The Yellow River flooded an area of about nine thousand square miles and drowned half a million Chinese peasants. Throughout China’s history, on both of its major rivers, flooding has always been a common experience. Often there would be as many as a hundred families on one terrace. The Chinese Floods of 1931. After Chinese and Japanese armies had clashed at Marco Polo Bridge in July 1937, the Japanese military launched a full-scale offensive into the heart of China, seizing Nationalist China’s capital of Nanjing in December 1937 and perpetrated brutal atrocities against its civilian residents. By that time the spread of disease had added its troubles to all that had been experienced from the flood and the famine. This flood killed over 900,000 people due to lack of transportation, and technological warning. Since there is no international unit to measure a flood's strength it is usually classified by the extent of the damage done, depth of the water, and the number of casualties. Why is Yellow River called China’s Sorrow? The overflow of water then continued until it reached the lowest point in the broken dykes. In the 1930s, years before World War II began, China was invaded by Japanese soldiers in flagrant violation of international agreements and by 1938 had captured and destroyed large areas of the country. Over the centuries, dikes had been built along the river by farmers to regulate the rising waters caused … [2] The resulting pandemic and lack of basic essentials claimed as many lives as those lost directly to the flood. Earthen dykes supported by stones were built on the sides of the river and periodically raised to higher levels as the river rose so that river water was always below overtop level. These floods have caused some devastating fatalities especially with the 1887 Huang He flood which killed up to 2million civilians while the 1931 Huang He flood caused … Some of these floods may be deliberate. Before the 1931 floods, the 1887 floods was had emerged as the worst ever natural disaster in history. Thousands of tons of earth had to be moved in wheelbarrows and, in the process of both removing the mud from their farms and rebuilding the dykes, almost all of it had to be passed from place to place by hand buckets. Throughout most of its history, the Huanghe was not dredged so there was always a slow buildup in the level of the river compared with the surrounding land. In 1947, with help from the United Nations, China returned the Yellow River to its former channel and two million acres of farmland was once again in productive use. After the flood, two million were left homeless. Heavy rainfall unleashed an enormous flood wave, which swelled further as dams burst, inundating more than 15,000 square kilometers. The stones needed for the work had to be carried in ox carts from places as far away as a hundred miles. Five thousand square miles were inundated. This has been especially true on the Yellow River, locally known as the Huanghe, because of the large volume of loess silt that it carries. Your email address will not be published. Since there is no international unit to measure a flood's strength it is usually classified by the extent of the damage done, depth of the water, and the number of casualties. (1887, 1931, 1938), series of devastating floods in China caused by the overflowing of the Huang He (Yellow River), the country's second longest river.These three floods collectively killed millions and are considered to be the three deadliest floods in history and among the … Nine hundred thousand people died, and two million were left homeless. Henan is close to the sea and close to the mouth of the Yellow River. Tuan's gambit did not succeed; … The 1887 Yellow River Flood. [1][2] It was one of the deadliest natural disasters ever recorded.[3]. The waters of the Yellow River are generally thought to have broken through the dikes in Huayankou, near the city of Zhengzhou in Henan province. One family, knowing that it had no chance of surviving, placed a baby on top of a chest along with some food and a piece of paper with its name, and this chest stayed afloat long enough for the child to be rescued. At the lower reaches of the river, where the land is relatively flat the speed of the river decreases, much of the silt is deposited. For these reasons, the Yellow River is often known as China's Sorrow or The Ungovernable. 1887 Yellow River Flood Farmers living in the vicinity of the Yellow River have been building dykes for centuries, wary of the mercurial river’s tendency to overflow. Yellow River Flood in China, 1887. In the year 1887, heavy rains poured right through the latter part of summer and into September. As the country’s second-longest river, the Yellow River is predisposed for flooding … … That is what happened in 1887 when the worst flood in Chinese history occurred. Three particularly devastating floods occurred in 1887, 1931, and 1938, resulting in millions losing their lives and millions more losing their property and livelihood. 2. It is believed that the Yellow River’s continuous flooding is mainly caused by the raised river bed in the river’s lower course. It is often referred to as the North China Plain. For centuries, the farmers living near the Yellow River had built dikes to contain the rivers, which over time flowed higher because, not allowed to flood, they had to deposit their silt on the riverbed. It took some time for the water to drop to this level and then the hard manual work of rebuilding the dykes had to be undertaken. It was slow work for the small boats as they tried to go from terrace to terrace and take people to safety. There was little that could be done. The 1887 Yellow River flood was a devastating flood on the Yellow River (Huang He) in China.This river is prone to flooding due to the elevated nature of the river, running between dikes above the broad plains surrounding it. It was one of the worst floods in history, though the later 1931 Yangtze-Huai River flood may have killed as many as four million. Every person was familiar with the routine for dyke repair. The Yellow River has caused many devastating floods, including a flood in 1332-1333 that killed an estimated 7 million people. Some of these deadly floods include the 1332-1333 flood during the Yuan dynasty, the 1887 flood during the Qing dynasty, and the 1931 flood during the Republic of China era. Huang He floods, (1887, 1931, 1938), series of devastating floods in China caused by It was not until the early part of 1889 that the dykes were finally closed. Millions of others were left homeless. The worst flood in human history occurred in 1887, when the Yellow River overran the dikes in Henan Province. The province of Henan where this happened has an average elevation above sea level of six hundred feet or less, very different from the mountainous regions from which the Yellow River had come. There was very little organization or resources for the rescue work. Posted on July 12, 2019 July 4, 2019 by justin in Worst Floods Ever. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Your email address will not be published. It was a common experience for workers to see their fellow laborers lose their footing and fall to their death in the river. The … The Chinese government of that time decided that its only hope of survival was to use the age-old method of breaking the dykes. The flood, which began in September 1887, killed about 900,000 people. (Brush and Wolman, 200&)The causes of both the 1887 and 1931 floods from the Yellow river are the same, heavy rain. 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