arsenic toxicity mechanism

Although the number of patients with chronic As exposure is large, the symptoms and long-term clinical courses of the patients remain unclear. Thiols, in the form of cysteine residues and cofactors such as lipoic acid and coenzyme A, are situated at the active sites of many important enzymes. Toxicity by Form: Arsenic toxicity may vary by form. In addition to reviewing the literature on As contamination and toxicity, we prov … Biological mechanism. The chapter is divided into two major sections-cancer and noncancer effects. Inorganic arsenic compounds (such as those found in water) are highly toxic while organic arsenic compounds (such as those found in seafood) are less harmful to health. A few stray reports of arsenic in cow’s milk are most likely due to adulteration of milk by arsenicated water. Arsenic disrupts ATP production through several mechanisms. The cell then self-destructs in an attempt to restore lost energy. Arsenic can also occur in an organic form. Another mechanism of arsenic toxicity is the methylation of inorganic arsenic which occurs in most though not all mammalian species. Unstable arsenic compounds irreversibly decompose, resulting in loss of high-energy phosphate bonds. “Telomeres are one of the features of the genome that change over time,” said Pierce. Inorganic arsenic is generally more toxic than organic arsenic. Arsenic is a known human carcinogen, but the specific mechanisms by which it causes cancer are less well understood. These actions of arsenic may result in the induction of apoptosis, the The immediate symptoms of acute arsenic poisoning include vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhoea. The type of organic arsenic found in certain seafood (arsenobetaine and arsenocholine) appears to have low toxicity. Arsenolysis, another mechanism of toxicity, results when arsenic anions disrupt oxidative phosphorylation by replacing stable phosphoryl with less stable compounds. Arsenic (As) contamination affects hundreds of millions of people globally. Observing how the genome changes in response to arsenic exposure may help us learn more about the mechanism of arsenic toxicity.” Pierce hypothesized that arsenic may act on telomeres to cause toxicity in cells. Arsenic free ... is free from arsenic due to modification inside body or some barrier action of unknown mechanism. There is equally varia-t io nh er ad x f m yl b w sp c and between human populations (Vahter, 1994, 1999 and 2000; Hughes, 2002). Arsenic is a natural semi-metallic chemical that is found all over the world in groundwater. Historically, arsenic has been used as a medicinal agent, a pigment, a pesticide, and an agent with intent to harm (use with criminal intent). “They shorten as we age. Arsenic Toxicity and Molecula r Mechanism of Arsenic Tolerance in Di fferent Members… 166 endodermis and e xodermis, unlike OsLsi1, which are localized on the distal side. Arsenic's toxicity comes from the affinity of arsenic(III) oxides for thiols. the toxicity and potential carcinogenicity of long-term exposure to envi-ronmental arsenic. Although numerous mechanisms for arsenic toxicity have been proposed, its ability to induce imbalances between antioxidant and pro-oxidant levels resulting in cellular damage through ROS generation is the currently accepted mechanism. Arsenic is considered to be a heavy metal, and arsenic toxicity shares some features with poisonings by other heavy metals. Arsenic apparently affects numerous intracellular sig-nal transduction pathways and causes many alterations in cellular func-tion. signs of arsenic poisoning may be reduced if the quality of drinking water were improved. In this chapter, the subcommittee summarizes what is known about the mechanisms of toxicity for arsenic. Arsenic poisoning, or arsenicosis, happens when a person takes in dangerous levels of arsenic. Acute effects. 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